nPar

vPars is a Virtual Partitions product that enables you to run multiple instances of HP-UX simultaneously on one hard partition by dividing that hard partition further into virtual partitions. Each virtual partition is assigned its own subset of hardware, runs a separate instance of HP-UX, and hosts its own set of applications. Because each instance of HP-UX is isolated from all other instances, vPars provides application and Operating System (OS) fault isolation. Each instance of HP-UX can have different patches and a different kernel.

The OS must be booted in nPars mode if: an nPartition is reconfigured, by adding, deleting, or moving CPUs or cells; the nPartitions NVRAM is cleared, or hyperthreading is turned on for the first time.

vPar

vPars is a Virtual Partitions product that enables you to run multiple instances of HP-UX simultaneously on one hard partition by dividing that hard partition further into virtual partitions. Each virtual partition is assigned its own subset of hardware, runs a separate instance of HP-UX, and hosts its own set of applications. Because each instance of HP-UX is isolated from all other instances, vPars provides application and Operating System (OS) fault isolation. Each instance of HP-UX can have different patches and a different kernel.

vPars also allows consolidation of underutilized servers into one faster server where applications are not permitted to affect one another, such as an ISP running many small e-services application servers

vPars offers flexibility by allowing different HP-UX instances, OS Releases, and patch levels to run on the same server.

When you set the mode to vPars for the first time on a system, you must use vparenv.

To set the nPartition into vPars mode so that the next nPartition boot allows you to boot the vPars Monitor and therefore the vPars environment:

Set the mode

# vparenv -m vPars

Then, you manually reboot the nPartition:

# shutdown -r

When a vPars database does not exist on a system, first boot into nPars (standalone) mode, create the vPars database, and then use vparenv -m vPars to switch the mode to vPars.
FEATURES:

-A single hard partition can be divided into multiple virtual partitions.
-Virtual partitions can be individually reconfigured and rebooted (for patches and other changes that require a reboot).
-Virtual partitions can have different OS releases and patch levels.
-Each virtual partition is assigned its own resources (cores, memory, and I/O), so there are no resource conflicts between virtual partitions.
-Processing resources and memory available at boot time can be added to or removed from a virtual partition without rebooting.
-Users on one virtual partition cannot access files or file systems on other partitions unless the file systems are NFS-mounted, or access is otherwise given through networking or for cluster-aware volume groups used within ServiceGuard. Further, users configured on one virtual partition do not automatically have access on any other partition.
BASIC COMMANDS OF nPAR AND vPAR.

1. #vparenv
2. #vparenv –m npars :- to boot into npar mode. it means on boot it will go to npar.
3. #vparenv –m vpars :- to boot into vpar mode. It means on boot it will go to vpar.
4. #vparstatus :- to check the status
5. #parstatus –c 0 :- shows information about specified cell, here like it is for 0.

6. #parstatus –v :- status in verbose mode i.e. more detailed status.
7. #parstatus –w: it will show where we are sitting i.e. on which NPAR we are sitting.
8. #vparstatus –A: Will show the devices which are free, like IO devices and CPUs etc.
9. #vparcreate
10. #vparremove

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